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2005 Desalination News


December, 2005

United Arab Emirates working to rid drinking water of chemical linked to cancer

Water authorities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi are working to rid drinking water of elevated levels of bromate, a chemical compound thought to cause cancer in humans, health experts told The Associated Press. Bromate can appear when drinking water is produced from salty sources, and in the United Arab Emirates and other desert countries, desalination of sea water is the dominant process for for potable water. Local and international officials stressed that the risk of cancer from bromate is probably very low - but not fully understood. No known cases of cancer in humans have been linked to bromate in water, experts said. Tests of drinking water samples from the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority, which serves the Abu Dhabi emirate, have shown bromate levels around 10 times the WHO’s recommended guidelines, according to Global Water Intelligence, an industry newsletter that reported the contamination in June. Nick Carter, who heads Abu Dhabi’s Regulation and Supervision Bureau, confirmed the findings and said the eight private plants that produce water for the emirate have been taking steps to reduce bromate below the WHO threshold by Jan. 1. The bromate was introduced into the water after plants switched from treatment with volatile chlorine gas to using seawater-based chlorine. Some plants are returning to using chlorine gas until a better treatment solution can be found, he said. AP/Khaleej Times Online_ 12/31/05

Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction to build world's largest desalination plant in Saudi Arabia

Doosan won a US$850 million contract to build what will be the world’s largest desalination plant in Saudi Arabia, the company said Thursday. The contract is part of the Shuaiba-3 project to build a power plant and desalination plant by June 2009 in the town some 110 km south of the Red Sea port of Jeddah. The plant will provide 880,000 tons of fresh water a day for 3 million people including residents of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, who now often face days without running water. Digital Chosunilbo_ 12/29/05

Work on Pakistan's Gwadar desalination plant to start in January

The 0.2 MGD capacity desalination plant will be completed within six months. The capacity of the plant will be upgraded with the time. GEO.tv_ 12/25/05

Veolia Water starts up operation of the world's largest reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant in Ashkelon, Israel

Veolia Water announces the start up of the Ashkelon Seawater Desalination Plant, south of Tel Aviv (Israel). With a daily production capacity of 320,000 cubic meters of drinking water (that is 108 million cubic meters a year), it is the world's largest desalination plant using reverse osmosis technology. The 25-year contract was signed in September 2001 with Veolia Water and its Israeli partners, following an international call for tenders published by the Israeli government. The contract covers the finance, construction and operation of the desalination plant, and represents for the consortium total cumulative sales for the term of the contract of around 1.5 billion euros. The plant was designed and built by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies and its Israeli partners. Press Release_ 12/21/05

Valley Center, California and Poseidon Resources ink desal water purchase deal

The Valley Center Municipal Water District and Poseidon Resources Corp. (News) announced Tuesday the district's approval of a water purchase agreement. The district will pay $700 per acre foot under the deal, after a $250 Metropolitan Water District of Southern California subsidy. The district currently pays $575 per acre foot for municipal water. Poseidon is building a 50 million gallon-per-day (56,000 acre-feet annually) desalination plant at the site of the Encina Power Station in Carlsbad. The proposed $270 million desalination project is scheduled to be completed by 2008. San Diego Daily Transcript_ 12/20/05 (logon required)

California American's chief says Monterey desalination project is stalled
The proposed desalination plant, California American's answer to over-pumping in the Seaside Basin aquifer, is at least 16 months behind schedule, has no secured site and faces potential litigation that could further slow its progress, the company's general manager conceded in testimony Tuesday. Steve Leonard agreed under questioning from an attorney for the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District that negotiations over a permanent desalination plant on Duke Energy property in Moss Landing have stalled since Duke announced it was selling its Moss Landing Power Plant. Leonard's testimony was the first in a non-jury trial to determine how much water may be pumped from the overcharged Seaside Basin and who will be appointed to monitor pumping. Monterey County Herald_ 12/14/05

Public will get a say on Sydney, Australia desalination plant, but cannot change outcome

Three urban planning and environmental experts have been appointed to determine whether Sydney Water properly considers community concerns over the Kurnell desalination plant, even though the State Government will ignore critics who oppose its construction. The Planning Minister, Frank Sartor, said the Independent Review Panel, to be chaired by Emeritus Professor Rolf Prince, the former head of the chemical engineering department at the University of Sydney, would have to make public their findings. The desalination plant is, as the former planning minister, Craig Knowles, declared, "beyond public debate" and is likely to be operational by 2008. The Government is for the first time using critical infrastructure provisions, the most draconian planning powers in the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act, passed last year. In effect, the provisions truncate previously existing environmental studies and ban "stop the clock" legal devices used by activists to slow or halt projects. The critical infrastructure laws give the public the right only to suggest to the Government how a project might best operate, not whether it should proceed in the first place. Sydney Morning Herald_ 12/13/05

California Coastal Commission raises objections to San Diego desalination project

The state Coastal Commission and environmental groups have criticized the city's environmental impact report on a proposed seawater desalination plant, but the city contends the project would present no significant or uncorrectable damage. Privately held Poseidon Resources is proposing to desalinate 50 million gallons a day of seawater at a 4-acre plant to be built alongside the Encina Power Station. The plant would be one of the first large-scale desalination plants in the state. Poseidon proposes to build the $270 million plant and tap the stream of water from Agua Hedionda Lagoon that the power station uses to cool its electrical generators. Poseidon also plans to buy electricity from the station to power the desalination plant. The Coastal Commission and environmental groups questioned the desalination plant's plan to tap the water the power station uses. Union-Tribune_ 12/10/05 (logon required)

Saudi Arabia to invest $216 million in desalination expansion

The Water and Electricity Ministry agreed this week to increase the output of four plants by 238 per cent-598 per cent to raise the daily production capacity of three of them to 9 million litres each and that of a fourth to 18 million litres a day, it said in a statement. The plan also comprises the construction of two new plants, Al Qunfuda and Al Leeth both with a daily production capacity of nine million litres each. The kingdom has some 70 water desalination plant but a large share of production is wasted because of poor piping. Saudi Arabia is overhauling the state-owned water sector in preparation for complete privatisation within a decade. Reuters/Trade Arabia_ 12/10/05

Australia's New South Wales parliament to assess need for Sydney desalination plant
The inquiry will examine the environmental impact and tender process for the proposed desalination plant, methods for reusing non-potable water for industrial and agricultural purposes, and opportunities to increase stormwater harvesting and the use of treated effluent. The upper-house inquiry will be chaired by Greens MP Ian Cohen, a staunch critic of the $1.3 billion desalination plant the government intends to build at Kurnell, in Sydney's south. Mr Cohen said the inquiry was "self-referred" by a Legislative Council general purpose standing committee, which he heads. The government says the desalination plant, which will provide up to nine per cent of Sydney's fresh water, is needed to safeguard the city's water supply as a long-term decline in rainfall takes its toll on dam levels. But the plant is opposed by the government's political opponents, environmentalists, water engineers and experts and by the local community where it is to be built. Daily Telegraph_ 12/2/05

November, 2005

Expert panel warned against Australian desalination plant: Greens

The Greens say they have found a document that shows the New South Wales Government ignored the advice of an expert water panel, which recommended against building a desalination plant. Greens MP Ian Cohen says the panel - headed by high profile environmentalist Ian Kiernan and commissioned by former premier Bob Carr - warned desalination was not an option that should be pursued because there were better alternatives such as restrictions and recycling. Mr Cohen says he has written to the auditor-general Bob Sendt urging him to look into the desalination plant, planned for Kurnell. ABC News Online_ 11/26/05

Santa Cruz, California water bills to jump 40 percent with desalination plant

The city's 25,000 water customers have been paying toward a desalination plant for more than a year. And they will keep on paying, as incremental rate hikes are scheduled for at least four more years. The Santa Cruz City Council gave unanimous approval earlier this month for a $40 million desalination plant to be built on the city's Westside, saying it's the only way for residents and businesses to weather a drought — which typically occurs once every seven to 10 years. Where monthly water bills for Santa Cruz customers now average about $45 for a typical household, rate hikes will put the average bill at $65 by 2009. The average monthly water bill in California is about $30, with Central Coast and Bay Area residents paying the most at $38 a month, according to a report released in June from the Public Policy Institute of California. If ultimately approved by the California Coastal Commission, Santa Cruz would join other coastal areas with desalination plants such as Marina, Santa Barbara, Long Beach and Marin County. Santa Cruz Sentinel_ 11/20/05

Bidder drops out of Sydney desalination plans
One of three consortiums short-listed to build Sydney's $2 billion desalination plant has pulled out of the bidding, amid rumours some companies are unhappy with the lack of information from the Government about contractual arrangements. Sydney Water yesterday confirmed to the Herald that Sydney AquaSolutions had formally withdrawn after being denied permission to change the composition of its team. A Sydney Water spokesman said it had legal advice that a change in the team at this stage might have disadvantaged the other bidders and therefore could not be allowed. He said the decision was based solely on the proposed team change and had nothing to do with rumours companies were concerned the plant would cost considerably more than $2 billion. Sydney AquaSolutions included the French-owned water company Degremont, Bovis Lend Lease, Bilfinger Berger and Baulderstone Hornibrook. The Herald believes Baulderstone's withdrawal from the team forced Sydney AquaSolutions to look for another engineering partner. Sydney Morning Herald_ 11/19/05 (logon required)

India installs desalination project on island of Kavaratti
The Union Department of Ocean Development has successfully developed the Rs 75-crore Desalination project for converting sea water to drinking water. Department Secretary Dr P S Goel said the project was successfully implemented at Kavaratti, a tiny island in Lakshadweep. He further said the pilot project was generating over 1.25 lakh litres of pure drinking water in the island which had no potable water sources. Dr Goel said a similar project was also being established in the sea, ten km off Chennai to generate ten lakh litres of desalined water to that city. It would be commissioned next year. Web India 123.com_ 11/18/05

Spain's Costa del Sol needs six new desalination plants

The new plan from the Public Works Department at the Junta de Andalucía says at least 4.300 million euros will need to be spent in the short and medium term to ensure the continued development of the Costa del Sol. Of this amount, 520 million euros will have to be spent on the infrastructure and services necessary to ensure water supplies over the years to come, and the supply needed can only be guaranteed with the building of six new desalination plants. Sur_ 11/18/05

Singapore's Sembcorp Utilities is high bidder for Abu Dhabi seawater desalination plant

Sembcorp emerged as top bidder for the privatisation of Fujairah-based power plant run by Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) yesterday by maker a bid of $1.3438 billion. ADWEA received four bids for the power plant, which has the electricity generation capacity of 650 megawatt and seawater desalination capacity of 100 million imperial gallons per day (MIGD). A consortium led by French energy company, Suez Energy International offered $1.338 billion, another consortium led by Japanese giant Mauribeni Corporation supported by JGC also from same country offered $1.127 billion, while the fourth group led by International Power of United Kingdom offered a price of $1.250 billion. Two Japanese companies Mitsui and Yondon were other partners in the bid. In the next phase, the proposals offered by the bidders would be evaluated. Khaleej Times_ 11/17/05

Saudia Arabia launches privatization of its desalination projects with SB9.1 billion contract to a consortium of Saudi and Malaysian companies

The consortium will set up the Shuaiba-3 desal plant, the first independent water and power project (IWPP) in the country. Water and Electricity Minister Abdullah Al-Hussayen, who supervised the signing of IWPP agreements in Riyadh, said Shuaiba-3 would supply 194 million gallons of water daily as well as 900 megawatts of electricity. Work on the project will start Jan. 21 and its first unit will begin production Oct. 13, 2008. He said the Supreme Economic Council, chaired by Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah, has approved four more similar projects, adding that they would be carried out by the private sector on a build operate and transfer (BOT) basis. The minister estimated the total cost of the four projects at SR30 billion. The private sector will contribute 60 percent of their cost while the state-owned Public Investment Fund (PIF) will have 32 percent stake and Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) 8 percent of the four projects. Arab News_ 11/14/05

Saudi Arabia may sell water desalination plants

Saudi Arabia, the world's largest desalinated water producer, may sell off its treatment plants to spur investment in the sector and help generate the $53 billion it estimates is needed to meet water demand in 2020. State-owned Saline Water Conversion Corp., the kingdom's biggest desalinator, is hiring international consultants to advise it on whether to sell its 30 plants that produce 3.4 million cubic meters a day of water, according to Vice Chairman Fehied Fahad al-Shareef. SWCC has more than half the kingdom's desalination capacity. A decision on whether or not to sell is expected in three to five years. The kingdom's demand for water is forecast to triple in the next 15 years, according to the state-run Power and Water Utility Company of Jubail and Yanbu, known as Marafiq. Saudi Arabia, the world's largest oil producer, receives about 100 millimeters (4 inches) of rain a year and most of that evaporates due to temperatures that can reach 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit) in the summer. Bloomberg_ 11/13/05

Singapore uses desalination to beat water woes, exports skills

Singapore, which is turning to desalination and waste-water technology to wean itself off water imports from neighboring Malaysia, is now using its expertise to win a bigger slice of the $600 billion global water business. Water is a crucial political, as well as economic, issue for Singapore. The tropical city-state, home to 4.2 million people and scores of water-guzzling electronics and drugs factories, pipes in half of its daily water needs from Malaysia. Just five years ago, Singapore's only alternative to imported water from Malaysia was the rainfall collected in 14 reservoirs scattered across the tropical island. Now companies such as Hyflux Ltd., which operates Singapore's biggest desalination plant, are expanding abroad and winning contracts in the Middle East, China, and India. With the opening of Hyflux's S$200 million desalination plant in September -- the world's largest plant using the reverse osmosis technology -- Singapore can now pump out 30 million gallons of water a day, meeting about 10 percent of its daily water needs. Reuters_ 11/11/05

University of Massachusetts Amherst wins $100,000 grant for wind-powered desalination plant study

The Renewable Energy Research Laboratory received the grant from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The lab will create a model of the technical and economic aspects of combining wind with more traditional power sources to power plants that turn seawater into drinking water. Many of those plants operate in coastal, windy areas. Once created, the model will be applied in a case study within the town of Hull. Desalination requires a significant amount of power. Most plants take power from a fossil-fuel grid. Hull's municipal power company has one large wind turbine installed, a second on order and is considering an offshore wind farm. Boston Business Journal_ 11/10/05

Australia encouraged by prototype wave energy desalination results

The developers of a prototype desalination plant off Port Kembla, south of Sydney, say early results using wave energy are favourable. Energetech Australia built a prototype wave energy machine to sit off the Port Kembla breakwater and almost as an afterthought added a small desalination unit. It was provided by NSW company H2AU which builds reverse osmosis units for ocean liners. John Bell from Energetech says the latest data shows sea water can be turned into drinking water using wave energy. Mr Bell says work is under way to build similar plants in Portland Victoria, as well as Spain, England and New York. ABC News_ 11/9/05

Texas' Brazos River rich source of water

The Brazos River Authority is looking offshore and teaming up with Connecticut-based Poseidon Resources Corp. and Dow Chemical Co. to build a $125 million, privately funded desalination plant in Freeport. Desalination is a process that extracts salt and other matter from seawater, to purify it for human consumption. Once thought too costly, competition among private companies is bringing the process within reach, Pierce said. The Freeport facility would be modeled after a Poseidon plant in operation in Tampa, Fla., and convert existing Dow facilities. The Facts_ 11/9/05

Sydney desalination plant 'to recycle effluent'

Sydney has been the slowest of the Australian cities to recycle water, but the city's proposed desalination plant may hurry its citizens along the recycling path faster than they realise. Peter Fagan of the Warren Centre for Advanced Engineering points out that the intake pipe at Kurnell would sit between the Malabar and the Cronulla effluent outfalls. The irony is that cleaning effluent for reuse is far cheaper than desalination. "It costs considerably less, both in terms of dollars but also in terms of energy and hence greenhouse gas emissions," Mr Fagan said. The Australian_ 11/7/05

China launches huge seawater desalination project

China's largest seawater desalination project, brought into operation in Zhejiang Province recently, is expected to provide sufficient freshwater for a local power plant. The 200 million yuan (24.7 million US dollars) project, located in drought-prone coastal Yuhuan County uses seawater from the East China Sea to produce freshwater to generate electricity. According to the State Development and Reform Commission and some other state-level agencies, desalinated seawater is expected to contribute 16 to 24 percent of the water supply in coastal areas by 2010, with a daily capacity of up to 3 million cubic meters in 2020. China is among the driest countries in the world, and 400 out of 600 Chinese cities suffer from water supply shortages for domestic and industrial uses. Xinhuanet_ 11/5/05

Costa Mesa, California blocks Poseidon desalination connector

The Costa Mesa City Council on Tuesday voted, 3-2, to bar the developers of the Poseidon desalination plant from running six miles of pipe under Costa Mesa streets and properties. The $250 million plant proposed for neighboring Huntington Beach would be able to convert 50 million gallons of seawater into drinking water each day. Huntington Beach's council has certified an environmental report on the project, but Costa Mesa almost certainly will require its own report on the project's local effects if the plant goes ahead. The plant is still awaiting approval from the Huntington Beach City Council and the California Coastal Commission and other public agencies. Poseidon Vice President Billy Owens told the council he felt like he was being "tried without a jury" and that his company eventually planned to make a formal application to install the pipeline, but likely not for another year. Costa Mesa council members said they're concerned about noise and traffic that construction of the pipeline will cause, and they don't see any benefits to the city from the project. Daily Pilot_ 11/3/05

California American Water outspends foes 10-fold in election fight that could lead to possible public takeover of the company's Monterey Peninsula water system

California American Water has spent more than $250,000 to fight Measure W, which would fund a study of the possible public takeover of the company's Peninsula water system. The expenditures dwarf the amount of money raised by Measure W's proponents. Citizens for Public Water has raised only $22,694, more than half of which is from Nader Agha, an outspoken Cal Am opponent and owner of the Moss Landing Business Park where Pajaro-Sunny Mesa Community Services District is planning to locate a desalination plant. Cal Am is planning a competing Moss Landing project. Measure W was placed on the ballot by the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District and asks voters in the district if they are willing to pay up to $550,000 for a study to determine the logistics and costs of a public takeover of Cal Am. Monterey County Herald_ 11/1/05

October, 2005

California's mothballed San Onofre nuclear power plant studied as desalination site

Water supply agencies for San Diego and Orange counties are taking a comprehensive look at using the plant's seawater intake system. Existing 12-foot-wide pipes that extend several thousand feet offshore may be suitable for a desalination project capable of producing 50 million to 100 million gallons of drinking water per day. Such a site would help San Diego County achieve its broader goal for desalination to contribute 15 percent of the region's drinking-water supply. The San Diego County Water Authority took the lead yesterday by allocating up to $825,000 to explore the proposal's feasibility. It chose RBF Consulting to conduct an analysis, which will take up to two years to finish. State and federal grants will cover nearly two-thirds of the study's cost. The earliest the San Onofre site could begin operating is 2020, said John Liarakos, a water authority spokesman. First in line is a proposal to build a desalination plant by 2011 at Carlsbad's Encina power plant. The facility would produce 50 million gallons of drinking water per day. An environmental impact study is under way for this site, which would be developed in a public-private partnership with Poseidon Resources. The water authority is also considering potential desalination sites in San Diego's South Bay, Liarakos said. San Diego Union-Tribune_ 10/28/05

Iran's Binak desalination unit to start in early 2006

The construction operations of Binak desalination unit with the capacity of 50,000 barrels per day will be launched early 2006, Mahmud Marashi, the project commissioner of developing desalination units at National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC) said, according to MNA. Other related projects underway include construction of Bibi-Hakimeh 1 desalination unit with the capacity of 55,000 bpd, and Gachsaran 3 desalination unit with the capacity of 110,000 bpd, he said. IranMania_ 10/22/05

Israel makes huge bet on membrane desalination
The Israeli government has put its bets on an expensive process that will take sea water and remove the salt, using a complex membrane process which has worked on a smaller scale. The process takes seawater deep from some miles offshore, where it is less saline, pumps it through membranes, takes out the fresh water and then dumps the remnant back into the sea. Israeli officials say that they would share the fresh water with Palestinians. The membranes are made by an American firm, Dow Chemical Co. The $250 million Ashkelon project would contribute about 5 percent of the water consumed by Israel, 100 million cubic meters per day. Washington Jewish Week_ 10/21/05

ACS, Abengoa, Sacyr win $180 million Algeria desalination plant contract

Abengoa SA said its Geida consortium with Actividades de Construccion y Serivicios (ACS) SA and Sacyr Vallehermoso SA have won their third contract to construct a desalination plant in Algeria for 180 mln usd. In a statement, Abengoa said the contract is to design, build and operate for 25 years the Tlemcem Hounaine plant near Oran, which is expected to have a capacity to desalinate 150,000 cubic metres of water per day. AFX/Forbes_ 10/20/05

China steps up desalination efforts to cope with coastal water shortage

According to the plan, desalinated seawater is expected to contribute 16 to 24 percent of the water supply in coastal areas in 2010, with a daily capacity of 800,000 to 1 million cubic meters. The plan says that China will develop more seawater desalination projects in the coming years to relieve the water shortage in its coastal areas. Shanghai Daily_ 10/19/05

China to turn to seawater to ease chronic shortage
Faced with chronic water shortages, the Chinese government announced plans to desalinize seawater for coastal areas. Although precise plans are not yet public, the project is expected to supply 16 to 24 percent of the water supply in coastal areas by 2010, adding 800 million cubic meters of water to the nation’s supply. The daily capacity of the project is expected to reach 2.5 to 3 million cubic meters in 2020. Of China’s 600 cities, 400 have insufficient water for their inhabitants. Xinhuanet_ 101/18/05

Decision delayed on largest U.S. desalination plant

The Huntington Beach, California, City Council on Monday voted to postpone until Nov. 21 a decision on whether to allow construction of a private desalination plant that would be the largest of its kind in the nation. The facility, to be located next to the AES power station on Pacific Coast Highway, would produce up to 50 million gallons of drinking water from seawater each day. In postponing the decision, council members said they wanted more detailed information — from city staff and from Poseidon Resources, which would build the $250-million plant — on the project's potential economic effects. Los Angeles Times_ 10/18/05 (logon required)

Consolidated Water Co. Ltd. begins selling shares to finance new Bahamas desalination plant

Consolidated Water, based in the Cayman Islands, hopes to generate at least US$11.3 million (euro9.36 million) to finance the construction of a new plan to convert seawater to drinking water in Nassau and the expansion of an existing desalination plant in New Providence, chief executive officer Rick McTaggart said. Consolidated Water Co. Ltd. operates desalination plants and water distribution systems in the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands. AP/Forbes_ 10/17/05

Siemens to build desalination plant for Pakistan

Siemens Power Generation (PG) is to build a combined cycle power plant with seawater desalination facility in Pakistan. Purchaser is the Karachi-based independent power provider DHA Cogen Ltd. Siemens PG will also build two identical-design steam power plant units for Office Cherifien des Phosphates (OCP) in Morocco. The two orders are valued at approximately EUR80 million. Press Release_ 10/10/05

California's Marina Coast Water District mulls supply for Ft. Ord

While Fort Ord developers can't count on receiving Marina's surplus groundwater right now, they can expect to get enough water to meet long-term needs from future desalination and water recycling projects. The Marina Coast Water District, the supplier to new Fort Ord development, recently held a workshop with developers and residents to discuss ways to meet commercial and residential water needs when projects are built out over the next 20 years. Fort Ord, which has been under the jurisdiction of the water district since 1997, has been allotted 6,600 acre-feet of water annually by the Fort Ord Reuse Authority. Proposed new development will require an additional 2,400 acre-feet per year, according to the Fort Ord Reuse Plan. It's up to the water district to come up with it. Monterey Herald_ 10/3/05

New type of desalination plant christened in Long Beach, California

For the next four years, the city will study a newly patented method to extract salt from seawater using less energy at less cost. The process proved successful in an earlier, and considerably smaller, prototype the department began studying in 2001. The $8 million plant unveiled Friday at the Haynes Generation Station grounds in East Long Beach will produce 300,000 gallons of desalinated water per day for research purposes. The plant was paid for by a mix of federal and local funding. The technology to be used at the research plant was invented by Diem Vuong, a retired Long Beach Water Department engineer and administrator. Traditional desalination methods push seawater through a membrane at high pressure to extract the salt. Vuong's technology, dubbed "The Long Beach Method," uses a second filter and less water pressure. Long Beach Press Telegram_ 10/1/05

September, 2005

President George W. Bush signs Honolulu desalination bill

Honolulu took a step closer to getting a plant to turn ocean water into drinking water, under a bill signed into law by President Bush. U.S. Sen. Daniel Akaka's office announced that the Hawaii Water Resources Act of 2005 authorizes the Department of the Interior to help with the design, planning and construction of water reclamation projects on three islands, and allots $1.7 million to finish a study on irrigation and water delivery systems in the state. Su Shin, a spokeswoman for the Board of Water Supply, said the new law does not actually appropriate money for a desalination plant. But it is a step toward obtaining federal money, because it allows the Interior Department to include funds for the project in future budgets. Honolulu Star Bulletin_ 9/22/05

Texas water district plans state's first water desalination plant

The Laguna Madre Water District hopes to construct a saltwater desalination plant on South Padre Island to end reliance on water from the Rio Grande, district officials said. The plant would be the first of its kind in Texas, officials said. The reclaimed water would serve South Padre Island, Port Isabel, Laguna Vista and other areas annexed by the water district. The desalination plant would replace a series of pipelines extending from the Rio Grande to the district. The plant may cost $10 million to build. A feasibility study is expected to be completed by early 2006. The Brownsville Herald_ 9/18/05

Gaza sewage project could cripple Israeli desalination facility

If the Palestinians go ahead with building a sewage pipe from the Gaza Strip to the sea, it could cripple the new desalination plant near Ashekelon, according to Israel's Water Commission. The plant is due to open at the end of this month and desalt 100 million cubic meters of water a year. "Any attempt to lay a pipeline to drain sewage into the sea must be physically stopped," the report said, adding that in addition to the damage caused by putting the plant out of business, the sewage would pollute Israel's beaches. Palestinian water commissioner Fadel Kawash said he was aware of Israel's concern. However, he noted that all the Israeli settlements in the West Bank channel all their sewage - some 15 million cubic meters a year - into open areas. Haaretz_ 9/16/05

Saudi water minister predicts desalination projects need $500 billion in next 10 years

Water and Electricity Minister Abdullah Al-Hussayen is leading a Saudi delegation to the World Congress on Desalination in Singapore. Over 700 delegates from 42 countries have gathered for the opening of the International Desalination Association (IDA) World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse. Saudi Arabia is not only the world's largest oil producer but also one of the world's largest producers of desalinated water, accounting for some 30 percent of the world's total output. Arab News_ 9/13/05

Singapore's water milestone: Completion of 1st desalination plant

Singapore's efforts to gain greater self sufficiency in its water supply reaches another vital milestone Tuesday with the official opening of the country's first desalination plant. Speaking at the opening of the International Desalination Association's World Congress being held here, Minister for the Environment and Water Resources, Dr Yaacob Ibrahim said Singapore has adopted seawater desalination as a means to expand and diversify its water supply. A fully-owned subsidiary of Hyflux, it will be able to produce 30 million gallons of water a day or 10% of Singapore's water needs. Channel News Asia_ 9/12/05

Chairman's style on California's Monterey Peninsula Water Management District board riles directors

Board member Alvin Edwards questioned the commitment of board chairman Larry Foy and General Manager Dave Berger to the district when dealing with the Peninsula's water purveyor, California American Water, as well as with the county's effort to form a regional governance structure for a desalination plant and the competition over who will build it. As the former vice president and general manager of the company's Monterey District, Foy collects a pension from Cal Am, which is vying with Pajaro-Sunny Mesa Community Services District to develop a regional desalination plant. "It's the way (Foy and Berger) work with Cal Am that's one of the biggest concerns," Edwards said. "We don't talk to Pajaro-Sunny Mesa as much as we talk to Cal Am." Monterey Herald_ 9/10/05

Long Beach, California's demonstration desalination plant to open by the end of September

While the city Water Department tests the technology developed by its own Diem X. Vuong, it also wants to experiment with a new way to get the seawater out of the sea. “Traditionally, desalination plants have pulled seawater in with a ‘straw,’” said Ryan Alsop, government and public affairs manager for the Water Department. “We want to try to show this alternative method can both bring water in and return the brine without damage to the ecology.Š One the construction is complete, you won’t be able to see anything on the beach.” Cost for the ocean floor project is estimated at $5 million. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is paying half, and the state Department of Water Resources is paying another $1.35 million, with the city paying the rest. If the Planning Department gives its approval in October, construction could start next year. Gazette Newspapers_ 9/8/05

Mixed signals given on Huntington Beach, California, desalination project

The Huntington Beach City Council early Wednesday approved an environmental report supporting construction of the nation's largest private desalination plant, yet signaled it would probably kill the controversial seawater-to-drinking-water project. A final vote on the project was tabled until Oct. 18. Poseidon Resources wants to build a $250-million desalination facility in southern Huntington Beach next to the AES power plant on Pacific Coast Highway. It would produce as much as 50 million gallons of fresh water daily. The water would be sold, though it's unknown to whom. Poseidon officials said they were pleased but not overly confident about their project's chances for final approval. Los Angeles Times_ 9/8/05 (logon required)

Huntington Beach, California desalination plant study gets OK

The City Council early today voted 4-3 to approve the environmental study for a proposed desalination plant but delayed a vote on other required permits, saying more information was needed about the project's benefits. More than 120 people signed up to speak at the public hearing on whether to allow Poseidon Resources of Stamford, Conn., to go forward with plans to build the $240 million facility on 11 acres leased from the adjacent AES power plant. The Poseidon plant would use AES' intake pipe to draw water from the ocean. After purifying the water through reverse osmosis, Poseidon would eject the brine into the sea. The water produced by the facility likely would not benefit Huntington Beach, which sits above a large groundwater aquifer. But the city would earn about $1.8 million in tax revenue, officials said. Orange County Register_ 9/7/05 (logon required)

Sydney, Australia's water bills to rise to combat water shortage and pay for desal

Water bills will rise by at least 9per cent in a State Government bid to ration the city's dwindling supply of fresh water and to cover some of the costs for a proposed desalination plant. The Planning Minister, Frank Sartor, yesterday conceded the increases - which will see most residents paying an extra 20 cents a kilolitre - could go higher to cover the full cost of building the plant. The price increases come as Sydney Water's monopoly over the city's sewers and pipes is set to be challenged. The state's Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal, which sets water prices, yesterday said the private sector should be involved in supplying new water sources such as desalination, ground water and recycling, and in building water infrastructure. Sydney Morning Herald_ 9/3/05

August, 2005

Texas groundwater desalination plant meeting expectations

A year and a half after it began producing drinking water, the Southmost Regional Water Authority desalination plant continues to grow and meet expectations, Brownsville Public Utilities Board officials say. PUB owns the majority of the reverse osmosis plant, the largest in the state and one of a handful in the Rio Grande Valley that take briny underground water and extract salt and minerals to make it potable. In the past, water providers shied away from desalination, saying it was too expensive. However, while the Southmost plant is producing water at slightly below the cost of taking it from the Rio Grande and treating it, the plant allows Brownsville to more than double its current water use. Brownsville Herald_ 8/30/05

Desalination comes to inland southern California

Eastern Municipal Water District, an agency that distributes water to several Southwest County communities, recently built two desalting plants in Sun City. One is up and running and the other will be in operation by the end of this month, said Mike Garner, assistant general manager of resource development. The $60 million project is aimed at purifying water pumped out of 10 wells in the Sun City-Menifee-Perris area. The agency is not stopping there, either. It has plans to build a third plant in Romoland, a small unincorporated community that sits between Perris and Hemet along Highway 74. Extracting salt from water is something that has long been possible, but rarely practical in the United States, Garner said. The cost has been so high ---- particularly when stacked up against the cost of say, piping water in from distant rivers and lakes ---- as to discourage most agencies from even considering it. Garner said his district is producing desalted water for about $700 an acre-foot. That's still a lot more than the $450-per-acre-foot tab for bringing in imported water from Northern California or the Colorado River. But the gap has narrowed significantly in recent years, and a regional program that subsidizes the cost makes it a viable alternative, he said. Through the desalting process, the district is able to clean up and use an otherwise unusable supply of salty ground water. At the same time, he said, the process allows Eastern to continue its heavy reliance on recycled water by erasing the fear of contaminating ground water. North County Times_ 8/28/05

San Diego County Water Authority, Poseidon say desalination talks OK

County water officials this week pushed back the date they hope to have a plant start turning seawater into drinking water from 2010 to 2011. But the one-year delay does not mean that on-again, off-again negotiations between the San Diego County Water Authority and Connecticut-based Poseidon Inc. are once again in trouble. "Negotiations are ongoing and productive," Bob Yamada, the Water Authority's desalination program manager, said Friday. Yamada said the revised date simply means the Water Authority is no longer in a rush to get the proposed plant in Carlsbad up and running. He said that's because Water Authority board members voted in January to expand the production of a $171 million treatment plant they plan to build in San Marcos by 2007 from 50 million gallons a day to 100 million gallons a day. The result, he said, is that the agency won't need the proposed Carlsbad desalination plant to help ease looming drinking water shortages on hot summer days ---- predicted because regional population growth has outgrown the capacity of existing treatment plants. Poseidon Senior Vice President Peter MacLaggan agreed Friday. North County Times_ 8/26/05

Sydney turns to desalinated water as drought drains reservoirs

Sydney, Australia's biggest city, may get a A$2 billion ($1.5 billion) desalination plant as the nation's worst drought in 100 years empties reservoirs.  Warragamba Dam, which supplies 80 percent of Sydney's water, fell to 37.2 percent of capacity on Aug. 18 and reached a record low 34.8 percent June 23.  Sydney has less than two years of ``poor quality'' water left, said John Archer, 64, who has written six books on Australia's water supply. ``If the desalination doesn't work, Sydney doesn't have any options other than evacuation,'' he said in an interview.  The plan was announced by former New South Wales state premier Bob Carr during a July visit to the desert state of Abu Dhabi. It faces opposition from environmentalists and some residents of Kurnell, the south Sydney suburb chosen as the site of the plant. They say it will use too much energy, is less efficient than recycling waste water and will damage marine life.  Bloomberg_8/23/05

Inventor could have answer to California water shortage
Desalinization plant could bring fresh water and electricity to Victor Valley

The dream of a local inventor could be the High Desert's answer to future water problems.  The solution to a possible shortage of water is something that could be solved by Phelan resident Ralph Miller. Just give him 85 miles of pipeline from the ocean to the desert and several hundred million dollars to make it happen.  Daily Press_8/22/05

Water treatment options - California counties eye desalination

It's an feat of alchemy that in semi-arid, fast-growing California rivals turning lead into gold. Technology holds the promise of economically turning salty water into fresh water. Brackish Suisun Bay and San Pablo Bay could become Solano County's newest drinking water sources, and massive ones at that. Someday. "We think the technology will improve and the cost of desalinization will go down over time," Solano County Water Agency General Manager David Okita said. "We're in a position to be able to wait."  Daily Republic_8/17/05

Study shows saltwater seeping into drinking water supply

Eight million gallons a day

A study shows a source of Hilton Head Island's drinking water is at risk of being contaminated by saltwater during the next 100 years, and state officials are assessing the threat.  A seven-year study conducted by the state Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division and the U.S. Geological Survey shows about 8 million gallons of saltwater leaks into the underground source every day.  It's still unclear exactly what effect those leaks will have on the area's drinking water, how fast the problem needs to be addressed or how it can be fixed before too much water becomes contaminated.  Dateline Alabama_8/17/05

Israel's largest desalination plant, operational
Gustavo Kronenberg, the director-general of VID Desalination Company Ltd. said the new $250 million desalination plant in Ashkelon began pumping potable water filtered from the Mediterranean Sea. The plant, constructed under the build, operate, transfer (BOT) method, will supply 100 million cubic meters of water a year, roughly 15% of the total household water consumed in Israel - by the end of the 2005.  Kronenberg added that the plant could expand production to 120m. cu.m. per year. The desalination complex covers 70,000 square meters, and counts 20 initial filtration pools (in which sea-borne solids are removed from the water), and 40,000 polymer membranes, which the water is pushed through to remove the salts and impurities in a process known as negative osmosis. Port2Port_8/15/05

Desalination comes to California's Southwest County
As efforts to turn sea water into drinking water struggle to get off the ground along the California coast, the practice of removing salt from ground water is flourishing some 50 miles from the ocean.  Eastern Municipal Water District, an agency that distributes water to several Southwest County communities, recently built two desalting plants in Sun City. One is up and running and the other will be in operation by the end of this month, said Mike Garner, assistant general manager of resource development. The $60 million project is aimed at purifying water pumped out of 10 wells in the Sun City-Menifee-Perris area.  North County Times_8/14/05

Ashkelon plant to help keep the region stocked with water

The world's largest desalination plant will supply 15 percent of Israel's household water needs.
If there is something that all Middle Eastern countries can agree on, it is the need for more sources of water in their region. Water shortages, and the issue of allocating the existing resources, are a constant concern and often a source of conflict between the countries in the area.  A state-of-the-art desalination facility, the first stage of which has just begun operating at Ashkelon on Israel's southern coastline, may, in the near future fulfil its creators' expectations and ease the regional water wrangling. Israel21c_8/7/05

Boustead Singapore Gets China Water Project

Boustead Singapore Ltd. announce that its subsidiary, Salcon Pte. Ltd. is designing, building and shall operate a water treatment plant capable of treating 40,000 cubic metres of water daily in the city of Tianjin, China.  Besides operating as a desalination plant treating high-salinity water such as sea water, the Water Treatment Facility will also be capable of treating high chemical composition water discharge from heavy industries. It is estimated to cost approximately CNY137 million.  Press Release _6/28/05

GE announces plans for largest desalination plant in Africa
At a ceremony held in Algiers Sunday, GE Infrastructure, Water & Process Technologies, a unit of General Electric Company, joined the Algerian Government, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), and the Algerian Energy Company (AEC), in announcing plans to build Africa’s largest seawater desalination plant through a special-purpose company, Hamma Water Desalination SpA (HWD).  Formed and funded by GE and AEC, the Hamma project is part of GE’s ecomagination effort, which is aimed at building innovative solutions to tough global problems, like water scarcity.   The Hamma project will supply –- 25% of Algeria’s capital city’s population -- with desperately needed drinking water.   Al Bawaba_6/26/05

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation signs desalination research agreement with Southern California's Metropolitan Water District

The agencies will test three water desalination pilot projects at Reclamation's Water Quality Improvement Center in Yuma, Ariz. The innovative technologies have the potential to reduce the cost of desalination while increasing the amount of water available after treatment. The $3 million research agreement includes in-kind and cash contributions from Reclamation and Metropolitan. Wes Bannister, chairman of Metropolitan's board of directors, said "creation of new technologies for desalting water could be used to develop non-traditional water supplies in Southern California, such as brackish groundwater, recycled water and agricultural drainage water. Ultimately, this could help reduce our need for additional imported water," Bannister said. Press Release/Business Wire_ 6/16/05

More details on the project

San Francisco Bay water desalination plant starts trial run

The $1.2 million Marin Municipal Water District pilot system consists of a series of tanks, pipes, knobs and meters on rented space at the Rod & Gun Club, where a similar pilot study was conducted in 1990. Water flows in and out of containers labeled "Conventional Backwash Supply Tank" and "Spent Backwash Water Tank." The mysterious "Conventional Flocculation Tank" flocculates nearby. The idea is, over the next nine months, to desalt water siphoned out of the bay using a reverse osmosis filtration system to find out, once and for all, whether a full-scale desalination plant would be feasible. San Francisco Chronicle_ 6/10/05

May, 2005

Desalination project to ease water shortage
India is poised to take a giant leap in the drinking water sector with the Ocean Development Department commissioning a desalination plant.  The plant, when operational, would make potable water available at a significantly reduced cost to consumers.  Chennai online_5/22/05

From seawater to tap water

Treating it could quench future thirsts, officials say. But would dumping salty leftovers hurt marine life?
Wary Brevard residents got a first look recently at a study that could lead to quenching Central Florida's thirst for water by building desalination plants on the Indian River Lagoon.  The region's water authority unveiled a $200,000 environmental study to predict what harm to sea grasses, manatees and other marine life would result from running two, large desalination plants on the shore of the coastal waterway.  Sun Sentinal_5/13/05

Swansea, Massachusetts OKs $1.4 million for final designs of state's first desalination plant

The vote at the annual meeting of the Swansea Water District came despite an effort to postpone the project indefinitely. Opponents argued the plant isn't needed but district officials said it would end Swansea's chronic water shortage and water problems. The $20 million plant will be financed through a low-interest state loan. The plant will transform salt water from the Palmer River into potable water. Herald News_ 5/10/05

Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction develops world's largest evaporation for Kuwait desalination plant

The firm will export the 3,650-ton evaporator, which is 104 meters long, 26.5 meters wide and 9.5 meters high, to Kuwait by June. It will construct three more evaporators for the Sabiya plant, which is due to be completed January 2007. Doosan won the $370 million contract from Kuwait's Ministry of Energy in May last year. The world's No.1 desalinization plant manufacturer expects record orders from Middle East countries this year. It won a $6.5 million order to build a desalinization plant in Libya in February and a $28 million contract to improve water facilities in Kuwait. Korea Times_ 5/9/05

April, 2005

San Diego County Water Authority OKs sea water desalinaton plant agreement

After the board's unanimous vote, water authority officials said they would contact the developer, Poseidon Resources, and resume negotiations, which stalled last year. The plan still must be approved by the California Coastal Commission. Poseidon Resources proposes to build the $270 million plant on land in Carlsbad that it leases at the ocean-front Encina Power Plant, owned by Cabrillo Power. The plant is expected to begin operation by 2010. San Diego Union-Tribune_ 4/29/05

Japan Bank for International Development, 15 other banks to lend Taweelah Asia Power Co. $2.2 billion for a desalination and power plant project in the United Arab Emirates

The economic daily Nihon Keizai Shimbun said the JBIC and the banks from Europe, Japan and the Middle East will provide Taweelah Asia Power Co. with the money to buy an existing power plant from the Abu Dhabi Electricity and Water Authority. Kyodo News/Japan Today_ 4/26/05

Amiantit Group announces $114 million in pipe, desalination and other contracts from Gulf Cooperation Council nations and Yemen

The Royal Commission for Jubail & Yanbu has placed an order worth US$40 million for the huge 4 meter diameter GRP pipes, which is the world's largest. In addition, there were two orders for desalination plants in Kuwait among other projects. The orders from other GCC countries were mostly for ductile iron pipes and included replacement of Asbestos cement pipes in the UAE - a substance which is internationally banned -, a water distribution network in Abu Dhabi and two other projects in Doha. The orders from Kuwait were for the Sabiyah Desalination Plant project, a road construction project, and Al-Khiran New Town infrastructure project. Orders from Oman were for the Sohar Desalination Plant, and projects in the Ibra, Al-Qabil, Bidiyah and Fanjah areas that mounted to US$ 13 million. In addition, there were pipes ordered for distribution network projects in Bahrain and Yemen. AME Info_ 4/26/05

Carlsbad, California and the San Diego County Water Authority announce $270 million desalination agreement with Poseidon Resources

The plant, which still must be approved by the city council and water authority board, could be providing drinking water from the Pacific Ocean by 2008. Under the agreement, Poseidon will own the plant. The Water Authority broke off talks with Poseidon last August after they could not agree on how Poseidon would share private information with the authority over some aspects of plant operations. The project would reduce the area's dependence on supplies from Southern California's Metropolitan Water District. San Diego Union-Tribune_ 4/20/05

San Diego County Water Authority says agreement requires competitive public procurement processes and that project specifications, construction inspection and project approvals be performed by the Water Authority to ensure quality control. Press Release_ 4/19/05

London mayor blocks UK's first desalination proposal

Ken Livingstone said the proposed £200m desalination plant by the River Thames in Beckton, east London, would consume too much energy. The mayor over-ruled Newham councillors saying people should conserve water. Thames Water, which is considering an appeal, says the plant is essential in ensuring London has enough water for its growing population. The company is in the process of replacing 850 miles of water mains over the next five years and looking at plans to build a new reservoir near Oxford to store surplus winter river flows to ensure London has enough water in the future. BBC News_ 4/19/05

Australia plans $300 million seawater desalination plant for its Upper Spencer Gulf to allow expansion of mining

WMC Resources Limited and the South Australian Government are seeking private sector interest in the proposal that envisages catering for domestic, industrial and agricultural water requirements on the Eyre Peninsula and in the Upper North. The planned desalination plant would be part of the largest infrastructure project in Australia, the $5 billion Olympic Dam copper mine expansion. Apart from being important to WMC and Roxby Downs, it is critically important to the state on several levels, including freeing up River Murray water which is used in the Upper Spencer Gulf region. The Advertiser_ 4/19/05

Newark, California desalination plant wins 2005 National Honor Award from the American Council of Engineering Companies

The group gives awards every March to the best engineering accomplishments of the past year, using criteria such as originality, technical achievement and economic and social value. The Alameda County Water District's brackish water desalination plant in Newark was one of 175 finalists this year, and one of 24 to win an award. The Argus_ 4/18/05

Wind turbines to power Australia's largest desalination plant

Fifty giant wind turbines will power an eco-friendly desalination plant to make Perth drought-proof and provide 2 million people with their biggest single source of water. In unveiling plans for the biggest desalination plant in the country, West Australian Premier Geoff Gallop said the $387 million venture would produce 45 gigalitres a year by October next year. But Dr Gallop would still not say where the turbines for the joint project between construction giant Multiplex and French company Degremont would be built. The plant will be owned by the West Australian Water Corporation but operated by Degremont for 25 years. The Australian/ 4/15/05

Hyflux Ltd. sells half of Singapore's first seawater desalination plant to state-owned investment company Temasek Holdings for 30 million Singapore dollars (US$18 million; euro 13.86 million)

Around half of Singapore's water is imported from neighboring Malaysia but the country is attempting to develop its own resources when its water agreements expire by 2061. Currently in the midst of commissioning, the plant will have a designed capacity of 136,380 cubic meters per day, making it one of the largest membrane-based seawater desalination plants in the world, Hyflux added. AP/Forbes_ 4/13/05

March, 2005

Hyflux Ltd./Black & Veatch Corp. bid for Algerian desalination contract

Singapore's biggest publicly traded water-treatment company, Hyflux Ltd., is bidding with privately-held U.S. engineering firm Black & Veatch Corp. to build two desalination plants in Algeria. Hyflux already is providing water and waste treatment facilities over three years for a string of man-made islands off the Dubai coast. Reuters_ 3/23/05

International experts converge at Dubai Water Reuse Technology Forum

Scientists, engineers and key decision makers from around the world, have assembled at the Water Reuse technology forum organised jointly by Dubai Techno Park and the International Desalination Association (IDA). The conference is an in depth assessment of water reuse technology, and examines why this needs to be a major part of all regional water management and development programs. Membrane users, water agency professionals, engineers and suppliers, involved in water treatment and supply, participating in the forum are expected to benefit by interacting with international experts in the area and will be exposed to the latest technology in water reuse. AME Info_ 3/13/05

Proposed California bill links Monterey Peninsula desalination plant to affordable housing

Assemblyman John Laird, D-Santa Cruz, has introduced legislation that would require any desalination plant serving the Monterey Peninsula to produce at least 750 acre-feet of water per year for affordable housing. Under the bill co-written by Assemblyman Simon Salinas, the plant would need to provide enough water for at least 3,000 households. The legislation adds a dimension to the ongoing intrigue over proposals for a regional desalination plant in Moss Landing. A group of mayors and city managers from the Peninsula, North County and Salinas is developing a joint management plan to take to the Monterey County Board of Supervisors for approval before the county releases a request for proposals to build a plant. In the meantime, two entities California American Water Co. and Pajaro-Sunny Mesa Community Services District-- are working on competing plans for what almost certainly will be only one desalination plant in Moss Landing serving the entire northern half of the county. Monterey Herald_ 3/1/05

January, 2005

Santa Cruz, California, water officials pursue pilot desalination project

The city has applied for $2.8 million in grants, mostly to finance a small-scale plant to study desalinating ocean water during dry years. The pilot project would enable the city to gauge what kind of treatment of the water is needed in different conditions, including during times when the water is more turbid, for example. Desalination takes the salt out of seawater, usually through reverse osmosis in which the water is slammed through membranes at high pressure. Critics say the desalination, in its modern form, harms sea life as water is sucked into a plant and is an energy-intensive process. Supporters say the method is a way to capitalize on the vast water supply offered by the sea. More than 20 desalination plants are proposed on the state’s coast, according to a 2004 California Coastal Commission report. Santa Cruz Sentinel_ 1/25/05

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